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Immediate Physiological Response Training Physiological Adaptation Aerobic

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Physiological responses to training occur almost immediately during the training itself. These responses affect things such as heart rate, ventilation rate, lactate levels, cardiac output and stroke volume. Physiological adaptations occur as a result of continuous training as the body adapts to that level of intensity, these include resting heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake, lung capacity, and blood pressure and hemoglobin levels.

Physiological responses and how they are effected during exercise:
Heart rate: your heart rate is how many times per minute your heart beats. Before you begin exercise your heart rate tends to rise in order to prepare for physical activity, supplying the muscles in your body with more oxygen to create energy.
Your resting heart rate is normally around 72 beats per minute; however athletes of people whom are cardio fit will have a lower resting heart rate. Your working heat rate is your heart rate during exercise and this varies depending on a person's level of fitness. An untrained person's heart rate will rise much quicker than a trained person and continue to rise as exercise duration and intensity increases. While the unfit person's heart rate rapidly climbs, a fit person's heart rate will slowly climb until they reach what is called steady state, where the heart rate remains steady for the period of exercise at the level of intensity. The recovery of heart rate will be much quicker for a trained person rather than an untrained person.
Ventilation Rate: your ventilation rate is the depth and rate of breaths per minute. Your minute ventilation at rest should be around 12 per minute and as exercise begins this will rise to trigger your respiratory activity needed to supply your muscles with oxygen during exercise.
Lactate levels: lactate levels are salts that are formed from lactic acid during anaerobic exercise. This relates to the PH volume in your body, or the acidity of your muscles. A neutral PH is seven, however when during anaerobic activity the lactate levels will rise above this resting level and enter the lactic threshold, creating a chemical imbalance and tipping the Ph level below seven as the muscles acidify. Here is where trained and non trained people will differ; a trained person will have a higher lactate threshold, meaning they can train harder for longer before their muscles become acidified. While an untrained person will reach their lactate threshold quickly, which will often cause muscular fatigue, forcing them to slow down or cease exercise.
Stroke volume: is the amount of liters per contraction of the left ventricle your heart expels. A trained person will have a more efficient stroke volume as they will expel and return blood much quicker than the untrained person {160ml/beat}, while the untrained person will only be able to expel {60-80ml per beat}.
Cardiac output: Your cardiac output increases as your stroke volume increases, as it includes the efficiency of each palpitation to the amount of blood pumped out of your left ventricle. It is calculate by heart rate x stroke volume. Untrained people are able to increase their cardiac output to around 21 liters when exercising while trained people can reach around 35 liters.
Your physiological adaptation to training includes:
Resting heart rate: As mentioned earlier in the physiological responses a trained person has a lower resting heart rate to an untrained person. The effect of training will increase the efficiency of your cardio system thus it has the ability to reduce your resting heart rate from 70-80 to 40-50.
Stroke volume: as stated before a trained person will have a more effective stroke volume thus, it will provide more blood per beat. Thus the adaptation of your stroke volume from exercise will increased the amount of blood expelled from the left ventricle per contraction.
Cardiac a large cardiac output is the main difference between trained and untrained people. The effects of training will adapt a more efficient cardiac output from 15-20 to 25-40.
Oxygen uptake: this can also be referred to as your VO2 max, your VO2 max, is how much oxygen our muscles can use in one minute. Here is once again where trained and untrained people differ. Trained people will have a higher VO2 max, as exercise increases mitochondria in the blood enabling oxygen to be more readily available.
Lung capacity: there are three elements involved with lung capacity these include your vital capacity {the amount expelled after each respiration} and this can slightly increase with training. Then there is your residual capacity {amount of air that cannot be moved during respiration} and this deceased slightly with exercise. Lastly there is your tidal capacity {is how much goes in and out in a normal respiration} this tends to remain stable at rest and sub max levels although can record a slight increase at maximum level. While there are slight changes in each element of lung capacity, your overall capacity does not fluctuate remaining steady at around 6000l.
Hemoglobin levels: these are what hold oxygen and transports it around the body. This can have large increases in training of up to 20%, however in females this may be lower, due to higher need for iron with menstruation and lower muscle mass.
Blood pressure: your blood pressure is the forced placed on the walls of the blood vessels with contractions and this is measured in terms of two readings: systolic {contraction against wall} this is the reading effected by training and your diastolic {relaxing and refilling stage of contraction} is not effected by training. The overall effect of training can lower your blood pressure, while a normal blood pressure is around 120/80.

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