Urine is the waste product that is formed by the kidneys and excreted from the body through the bladder and the urethra. The kidneys function to filter the metabolic wastes from the plasma and excrete into urine. The metabolic wastes making up the urine comprises largely of water, with ammonia, uric acid, urea, and inorganic salts. Normally, when you urinate there will not be any foamy bubbles formed in the toilet bowl. However, in certain underlying medical conditions, a thin layer of foamy bubbles, known as foamy urine, appear in the toilet bowl after you urinate.
There are variety of causes that produces foamy urine. Some may be mild and something not to be worried about, while others indicate severe underlying medical conditions that need attention immediately.
The most common cause of foamy urine is produced when you urinate rapidly. Many people would retain urine in their bladders and keep on storing till the last moment. Nerve ending are present in the wall of the bladder and are stimulated as its wall stretches due to urine storage. Hence, when the bladder is full, people reach the toilet bowl with excessive stimulated nerves making them to urinate rapidly. Thin foam is produced when the urine hits the toilet bowl with great force. For this reason, try to visit the toilet earlier and urinate slowly.
Furthermore, foamy urine is also produced when the urine is concentrated. This commonly occurs when the person is dehydrated. Low intake of fluid will cause the fluid levels in the urine to be low as well, resulting in concentrated urine. For this, you should have plenty of fluids so that the urine is well diluted.
Most dangerous of all causes of foamy urine is the presence of proteins in the urine, a condition known as proteinuria. Although, proteins are present in the urine in minute amounts normally, larger quantities of proteins indicates and infection or damage to the glomeruli of the kidneys. Proteinuria is a serious condition that requires medical attention immediately as this indicates kidney damage and may lead to kidney failure. Some underlying medical conditions causing proteinuria includes, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, acute glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, minimal change disease, Ig A nephropathy, and many more. Treatment of proteinuria depends on the conditions causing it. Each underlying condition is treated accordingly.
Lastly, a urinary tract infection is also a cause of foamy urine. The presence of bacteria in the urine leads to foamy, bubbles to appear in the urine. Urinary tract infections are treated with antibiotics chosen according the individual patients needs.